Bibliometric analyses of COVID-19 research

Applications for the bibliometric Co-occurrence analysis:

  • Offers an overview of:
    • the structure of topics investigated,
    • the relative focus, as measured by the number of occurrences, shown as the size of nodes.
    • The different colors indicate different general research foci.
  • Identifying the most relevant search terms.
    • The keywords in the map are those commonly used by article authors, with differences across the research areas. Identifying the most relevant terms can help narrow the search to the most relevant articles.

To access the interactive map, you need to open the graph in VosViewer, which allows you to search the map, see what keywords are connected, and the strength of the connection between each node in the graph diagram. To open the map in VosViewer, Please click here, and allow it to download, then open the file and allow Java to run. For a video demonstration of how to do this, please see here.

For more information about what a bibliometric keyword co-occurrence analysis is, please see the About page. The data is downloaded from PubMed.

Insights and trends

Some insights from the weekly bibliometric keyword co-occurrence analyses conducted since March 2020 include that there has been a very rapid increase in COVID-19 literature. From 992 on March 16th, when we initiated this project, to over 50 000 now. Below we refer to some insights and trends. For more details, please read the individual blog posts. 

Early in the pandemic, the research focus, based on 1323 publications on March 23rd, was on topics within “Health and pandemic management,” “The disease and its pathophysiology,” “Clinical epidemiology of the disease,” and “Treatment of the disease”. Please see the preprint for a more detailed description

About a month later, on April 20th, the number of publications had increased with 395%; to 5228. Moreover, the research landscape had changed somewhat. The topics studied can be described as 1) «A global virus pandemic» including topics within “preventive epidemiology” and “care management.” 2) “Disease epidemiology,” 3) “Pathophysiology and origin,” including topics within “viral biology” and “drug treatment”, 4) “Clinical epidemiology”, and 5) a fifth cluster includes topics on mental health and attitudes. The topic of mental health starts to emerge as a research focus within the COVID-19 pandemic research. During March and April, several countries have introduced strict social distancing measures to reduce the spread of the covid-19 virus. New research focuses on how the pandemic affects people’s mental health and feelings of isolation and loneliness.  For more details, click here

On July 23rd, the focus of the most recent literature was on 1) Public health strategies, treatment, and the global impact of COVID-19, 2) the role of existing drugs and vaccines in the current pandemic, 3) demographics and risk factors, 4) literature concentrated on understanding the nature of the virus, and 5) COVID-19 and mental health. For more details, check out this post

For an illustration of the change in research trends across the very early stages of the pandemic and later stages, please see our post from September 23rd: Click here

Growth in number of documents by week:

Date Nr. of docs in PubMed
16th March 992
23rd March 1323
30th March 1788
6th April 2684
13th April 3683
20th April 5228
27th April 6958
04th May 8791
11th May 11005
18th May 13103
25th May 15438
01st June 17356
08th June 19426
15th June 22147
22nd June 24167
29th June 26187
06th July 28256
13th July 30116
20th July 32262
27th July 33970
03rd August 36201
10th August 38271
17th August 39914
24th August 41913
31st August 46037
7th September 48067
14th September 50057
21st September 52105
28th September 53994
05th October 56023

 

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to September 28th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed September 28th consisted of 53994 publications. There were 3300 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts. The keywords divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method. The minimum cluster size was set to 30.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
public health pneumonia pandemic sars female
telemedicine mortality coronavirus infection animals male
epidemiology hydroxychloroquine viral pneumonia antiviral agents middle aged
mental health inflammation betacoronavirus viruses adult
epidemic ace2 china zoonosis aged
personal protective equipment infection disease outbreaks mers children
anxiety cytokines infection control peptidyl-dipeptidase a clinical laboratory techniques
infectious diseases acute respiratory distress syndrome quarantine vaccine young adult
depression chloroquine united states spike glycoprotein, coronavirus adolescent
outbreak treatment global health respiratory infections risk factor
health policy critical illness italy antibodies, viral retrospective studies
social distancing hypertension travel diagnosis tomography, x-ray computed
prevention cardiovascular diseases surveys and questionnaires viral vaccines aged, 80 and over
transmission cytokine storm health personnel genome, viral lung
india ards time factors clinical trials as topic infant
social media diabetes mellitus risk assessment phylogeny comorbidity
stress stroke critical care chiroptera treatment outcome
lockdown obesity cross-sectional studies wuhan fever
cancer remdesivir practice guidelines as topic antibody child, preschool
healthcare workers thrombosis contact tracing antibodies, monoclonal severity of illness index
triage lopinavir world health organization receptors, virus pregnancy
risk diabetes delivery of health care immunization, passive hospitalization
safety tocilizumab brazil host-pathogen interactions prognosis
surgery angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors united kingdom alanine intensive care units
education acute kidney injury communicable disease control drug repositioning real time polymerase chain reaction

To open the map directly in VOSviewer, please use these the latest MAP and NET files, available through the Open Science Foundation (OSF) repository:
https://osf.io/54gqw/ 

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graphs comparing COVID-19 research focus in the very early stages (up to March 23rd, 2020) to the focus in August 2020.

In this post, we compare the focus of the COVID-19 literature published in the very early stages of the pandemic (up to March 23rd) to the focus of literature published during August 2020.

The first graph below is based on the literature based on the Corpus downloaded from PubMed 23rd March. The literature consisted of 1323 publications, of which there were 225 keywords that occurred in three or more manuscripts. These divided into four clusters, that are described in this preprint

The second graph below is based on COVID-19 literature published during August 2020. The literature consisted of 10901 publications, of which there were 1179 keywords that occurred in 5 or more manuscripts. The keywords divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method. The minimum cluster size was set to 15. We provide a brief description of the clusters from the August COVID-19 litterature: Within cluster 1 (red), the “Pandemic of viral pneumonia; public health and world spread”, we found topics relating to “Public health concerns” “health personnel, education and behavior”,  “Guidelines and health care”, and “vulnerabilities in health care”. Cluster 2 (green), “Treatment of COVID-19”, include topics relating to “Epidemiology of virus transmission” “Antiviral agents and vaccines”, “Cancer and chemotherapy”, “Angiotensin and diabetes” and “Antibodies and passive immunization” Central themes in cluster 3 (blue), “Epidemiology of the pandemic and disease”, are “Respiratory illness and care”, “Risk factors and mortality”, “Clinical investigation and diagnosis” and “Population epidemiology”. Central themes in cluster 4 (yellow), “Surveys of disease and mental health”, are topics relating to “Population surveys and anxieties” and “Health care and migration”. Cluster 5 (purple), is dominated by one single theme, namely topics relating to “Lab-work and diagnostics”; which is also what we labeled this cluster.

When inspecting and comparing the network graphs illustrating the COVID-19 literature published during August and one published during the early phase (January 1st – March 23rd, 2020), we notice some consistent themes, and some emerging themes. Much of what was being covered during the early phase is still in focus. For instance, the topics from the “health and pandemic management” cluster from the early phase is reflected in the topics covered in the “Pandemic of viral pneumonia; public health and world spread” cluster in the August literature network graph. Early in the pandemic, there was not however, a focus on mental health issues. This has become an additional focus later in the pandemic, and is evident in the “Surveys of disease and mental health” in the August literature network graph. These are just some examples of insights that can be gained from comparing network graphs from different time periods.

Figure 1: The research focus in the very early Covid-19 literature


Figure 1 Notes: Red cluster: Health and pandemic management; Green cluster: The disease and its pathophysiology; Blue cluster: Clinical epidemiology of the disease; Yellow cluster: Treatment of the disease.

Figure 2 (below): The research focus in a later stage of the Covid-19 literature

Figure 2 notes: Red cluster: Pandemic of viral pneumonia; public health and world spread; Green cluster: Treatment of COVID-19; Blue cluster: Epidemiology of the pandemic and disease; Yellow cluster: Surveys of disease and mental health; Purple cluster: Lab-work and diagnostics.

Tables of most central keywords in each cluster; in literature published during the early phase of the pandemic, and literature published during August.

The tables below provide an overview of the most central keywords in each cluster in the two time-periods. We extracted more keywords from the second time period as there was substantially more literature published in August alone, than the first 12 weeks of 2020, which the first map is based on. (Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality)

Table 1: Most frequent keywords in the very early Covid-19 literature

Health and pandemic management
(Red)
The disease and its pathophysiology
(Yellow)
Clinical epidemiology of the disease
(Blue)
Treatment of the disease
(Green)
coronavirus infection pneumonia female sars
viral pneumonia outbreak adult animals
betacoronavirus epidemiology male genome, viral
china antiviral agents middle aged phylogeny
disease outbreaks viruses aged zoonosis
travel republic of korea young adult wuhan
pandemic lopinavir fever chiroptera
global health transmission tomography, x-ray computed communicable diseases, emerging
infection control ritonavir children disease reservoirs
public health mortality lung peptidyl-dipeptidase a


Table 2 (below):
Most frequent keywords in a later stage of the Covid-19 literature

Pandemic of viral pneumonia; public health and world spread (Red) Treatment of COVID-19 (Green) Epidemiology of the pandemic and disease (Blue) Surveys of disease and mental health (Yellow) Lab-work and diagnostics (Purple)
pandemic antiviral agents female surveys and questionnaires clinical laboratory techniques
coronavirus infection animals male cross-sectional studies rna, viral
viral pneumonia sars middle aged anxiety real time polymerase chain reaction
betacoronavirus inflammation adult health personnel antibodies, viral
public health peptidyl-dipeptidase a aged mental health sensitivity and specificity
united states spike glycoprotein, coronavirus young adult pregnancy reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction
quarantine epidemiology adolescent depression reproducibility of results
infection control cytokines aged, 80 and over prevalence immunoglobulin g
italy hydroxychloroquine retrospective studies exercise diagnosis
telemedicine viral vaccines children stress, psychological serological test
disease outbreaks antibodies, monoclonal china pregnancy complications, infectious polymerase chain reaction
communicable disease control ace2 risk factor health knowledge, attitudes, practice seroepidemiologic studies
delivery of health care interleukin-6 severity of illness index adaptation, psychological asymptomatic infections
global health infection treatment outcome risk immunoglobulin m
personal protective equipment vaccine comorbidity stress molecular diagnostic techniques
infectious diseases viruses hospitalization nurses asymptomatic diseases
health policy cytokine release syndrome child, preschool attitude of health personnel specimen handling
social isolation host-pathogen interactions tomography, x-ray computed health behavior family characteristics
united kingdom protein binding infant fear olfaction disorders
practice guidelines as topic molecular docking simulation risk assessment students nasopharynx

To open the maps directly in VOSviewer, please use the relevant MAP and NET files (Co-occurrence files from March 23rd and the files for August2020Total, available through the Open Science Foundation (OSF) repository:
https://osf.io/54gqw/ 

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to September 21st, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed September 21st include 52105 publications. There were 3258 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts. The keywords divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method. The minimum cluster size was set to 30.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4  Cluster 5
public health pneumonia pandemic sars female
telemedicine mortality coronavirus infection animals male
epidemiology hydroxychloroquine viral pneumonia antiviral agents middle aged
mental health inflammation betacoronavirus viruses adult
epidemic ace2 china zoonosis aged
personal protective equipment infection disease outbreaks mers children
anxiety cytokines infection control peptidyl-dipeptidase a clinical laboratory techniques
infectious diseases acute respiratory distress syndrome quarantine spike glycoprotein, coronavirus young adult
outbreak chloroquine united states vaccine adolescent
depression treatment global health antibodies, viral risk factor
health policy critical illness italy respiratory infections retrospective studies
social distancing cardiovascular diseases travel diagnosis tomography, x-ray computed
prevention hypertension surveys and questionnaires viral vaccines aged, 80 and over
transmission cytokine storm health personnel genome, viral lung
india ards time factors clinical trials as topic infant
social media diabetes mellitus risk assessment phylogeny comorbidity
stress stroke critical care chiroptera fever
lockdown remdesivir practice guidelines as topic wuhan treatment outcome
cancer obesity contact tracing antibodies, monoclonal child, preschool
healthcare workers thrombosis world health organization receptors, virus severity of illness index
triage angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors delivery of health care antibody pregnancy
risk lopinavir brazil immunization, passive hospitalization
safety tocilizumab united kingdom alanine prognosis
surgery diabetes incidence drug repositioning intensive care units
virology randomised controlled trial communicable disease control host-pathogen interactions real time polymerase chain reaction
knowledge acute kidney injury infectious disease transmission, patient-to-professional adenosine monophosphate cough
ethics influenza republic of korea virus replication cross-sectional studies
education interleukin-6 communication virus internalization respiration, artificial
disinfection ritonavir stress, psychological serology age factors
guidelines meta-analysis masks molecular docking simulation rna, viral

To open the map directly in VOSviewer, please use these the latest MAP and NET files, available through the Open Science Foundation (OSF) repository:
https://osf.io/54gqw/ 

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph of the current focus of the COVID-19 literature

In this week’s update, we are presenting something slightly different; the current focus of the COVID-19 literature, based on publications registered in PubMed as published during week 35-37 (August 24th-September 13th). This resulted in 8144 publications. There were 687 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts. These divided into four main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method. The minimum cluster size was set to 15.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1  Cluster 2  Cluster 3 Cluster 4
public health treatment outcome pandemic male
mental health antiviral agents coronavirus infection female
telemedicine pneumonia viral pneumonia middle aged
anxiety time factors betacoronavirus adult
epidemiology sars brazil aged
covid‐19 mortality clinical laboratory techniques china
depression hydroxychloroquine personal protective equipment risk factor
infectious diseases respiration, artificial united states adolescent
epidemic inflammation health personnel young adult
quarantine host microbial interactions pregnancy children
lockdown ace2 infection control retrospective studies
stress cytokines lung aged, 80 and over
global health infection nephrology severity of illness index
prevalence randomized controlled trials as topic australia cross-sectional studies
india stroke masks surveys and questionnaires

To open the map directly in VOSviewer, please use the “KeywordCoOccurrance5Inst1Resol1_20200914FocusAug24thToSep13th” MAP and NET files, available through the Open Science Foundation (OSF) repository:
https://osf.io/54gqw/

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to September 7th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed September 7th 48067 publications. There were 2960 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts. The keywords divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method. The minimum cluster size was set to 30.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1  Cluster 2  Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
public health pneumonia pandemic sars female
epidemiology mortality coronavirus infection animals male
telemedicine hydroxychloroquine viral pneumonia antiviral agents middle aged
epidemic inflammation betacoronavirus viruses adult
mental health infection china zoonosis aged
personal protective equipment ace2 disease outbreaks mers clinical laboratory techniques
anxiety acute respiratory distress syndrome infection control peptidyl-dipeptidase a children
infectious diseases chloroquine quarantine spike glycoprotein, coronavirus young adult
outbreak cytokines united states antibodies, viral adolescent
depression vaccine global health diagnosis risk factor
health policy treatment italy respiratory infections tomography, x-ray computed
social distancing hypertension travel viral vaccines retrospective studies
prevention cardiovascular diseases health personnel genome, viral aged, 80 and over
communication critical illness surveys and questionnaires clinical trials as topic lung
transmission cytokine storm time factors phylogeny infant
social media ards critical care chiroptera fever
internet diabetes mellitus risk assessment wuhan child, preschool
lockdown stroke practice guidelines as topic receptors, virus comorbidity
cancer remdesivir world health organization antibodies, monoclonal treatment outcome
stress obesity contact tracing immunization, passive severity of illness index
triage lopinavir delivery of health care antibody pregnancy
risk tocilizumab infectious disease transmission, patient-to-professional alanine hospitalization
healthcare workers angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors united kingdom drug repositioning intensive care units
safety thrombosis brazil adenosine monophosphate cough
surgery ct communicable disease control pathogenesis real time polymerase chain reaction
spain computed tomography stress, psychological virus replication prognosis
education diabetes masks communicable diseases, emerging incidence
ethics ritonavir republic of korea spike protein age factors
virology interleukin-6 forecasting virus internalization cross-sectional studies
knowledge influenza civil defense serology respiration, artificial

To open the map directly in VOSviewer, please use these the latest MAP and NET files, available through the Open Science Foundation (OSF) repository:
https://osf.io/54gqw/ 

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to August 31st, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed August 31st 46037 publications. There were 2833 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts. The keywords divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method. The minimum cluster size was set to 30.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1  Cluster 2  Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
public health pneumonia pandemic sars female
epidemiology mortality coronavirus infection animals male
telemedicine hydroxychloroquine viral pneumonia antiviral agents middle aged
epidemic inflammation betacoronavirus viruses adult
mental health ace2 china zoonosis aged
personal protective equipment infection disease outbreaks mers clinical laboratory techniques
infectious diseases acute respiratory distress syndrome infection control peptidyl-dipeptidase a children
anxiety chloroquine quarantine spike glycoprotein, coronavirus young adult
outbreak cytokines united states respiratory infections adolescent
depression vaccine global health antibodies, viral risk factor
health policy treatment travel diagnosis tomography, x-ray computed
social distancing hypertension italy genome, viral retrospective studies
prevention cardiovascular diseases health personnel viral vaccines aged, 80 and over
communication critical illness intensive care units transmission lung
social media cytokine storm time factors phylogeny infant
masks ards critical care chiroptera fever
internet diabetes mellitus risk assessment wuhan child, preschool
triage stroke practice guidelines as topic receptors, virus comorbidity
healthcare workers lopinavir world health organization immunization, passive pregnancy
lockdown obesity contact tracing antibodies, monoclonal severity of illness index
cancer remdesivir incidence drug repositioning hospitalization
risk tocilizumab infectious disease transmission, patient-to-professional antibody treatment outcome
stress angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors delivery of health care alanine cough
safety thrombosis united kingdom virus replication real time polymerase chain reaction
surgery computed tomography communicable disease control adenosine monophosphate surveys and questionnaires
social isolation diabetes clinical trials as topic communicable diseases, emerging prognosis
spain influenza stress, psychological virus internalization age factors
ethics interleukin-6 republic of korea disease reservoirs respiration, artificial
virology ritonavir civil defense models, molecular rna, viral
education ct forecasting serology cross-sectional studies

To open the map directly in VOSviewer, please use these the latest MAP and NET files, available through the Open Science Foundation (OSF) repository:
https://osf.io/54gqw/ 

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to August 24th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed August 24th 41913 publications. There were 2516 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts. The keywords divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method. The minimum cluster size was set to 30.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
pneumonia telemedicine pandemic sars female
epidemiology mental health coronavirus infection animals male
mortality personal protective equipment viral pneumonia antiviral agents adult
hydroxychloroquine anxiety betacoronavirus viruses middle aged
infectious diseases depression china zoonosis aged
infection social distancing disease outbreaks outbreak clinical laboratory techniques
inflammation prevention public health mers children
ace2 masks infection control peptidyl-dipeptidase a young adult
chloroquine healthcare workers quarantine spike glycoprotein, coronavirus adolescent
acute respiratory distress syndrome triage united states vaccine tomography, x-ray computed
cytokines cancer epidemic antibodies, viral risk factor
treatment safety global health respiratory infections retrospective studies
critical illness spain travel genome, viral lung
hypertension surgery italy viral vaccines aged, 80 and over
cardiovascular diseases stress health personnel diagnosis infant
cytokine storm lockdown intensive care units clinical trials as topic fever
ards education time factors transmission child, preschool
diabetes mellitus knowledge health policy phylogeny comorbidity
stroke ethics critical care chiroptera pregnancy
obesity guidelines practice guidelines as topic wuhan hospitalization
remdesivir patient care risk assessment lopinavir cough
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors nurses contact tracing receptors, virus severity of illness index
tocilizumab psychiatry world health organization ritonavir treatment outcome
computed tomography disinfection infectious disease transmission, patient-to-professional antibodies, monoclonal real time polymerase chain reaction
diabetes aerosols delivery of health care immunization, passive surveys and questionnaires

To open the map directly in VOSviewer, please use these the latest MAP and NET files, available through the Open Science Foundation (OSF) repository:
https://osf.io/54gqw/ 

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to August 17th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed August 17th 39914 publications. There were 2395 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts; this is the same number as last week. However, the order of the most frequently occurring keywords has changed slightly. The keywords divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method. The minimum cluster size was set to 30.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
public health pneumonia pandemic sars male
epidemiology hydroxychloroquine coronavirus infection animals female
telemedicine mortality viral pneumonia antiviral agents adult
epidemic infection betacoronavirus viruses middle aged
personal protective equipment inflammation china zoonosis aged
mental health ace2 disease outbreaks mers clinical laboratory techniques
infectious diseases chloroquine infection control peptidyl-dipeptidase a children
outbreak acute respiratory distress syndrome quarantine spike glycoprotein, coronavirus young adult
anxiety cytokines united states genome, viral adolescent
health policy treatment travel respiratory infections tomography, x-ray computed
depression vaccine global health antibodies, viral risk factor
social distancing cardiovascular diseases italy viral vaccines retrospective studies
communication hypertension health personnel diagnosis lung
prevention critical illness intensive care units phylogeny aged, 80 and over
transmission cytokine storm critical care chiroptera infant
social media diabetes mellitus practice guidelines as topic wuhan fever
internet ards time factors receptors, virus child, preschool
healthcare workers lopinavir risk assessment immunization, passive comorbidity
triage angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors contact tracing antibodies, monoclonal pregnancy
masks remdesivir world health organization drug repositioning cough
risk obesity united kingdom alanine hospitalization
cancer tocilizumab infectious disease transmission, patient-to-professional antibody severity of illness index
surgery ritonavir delivery of health care adenosine monophosphate real time polymerase chain reaction
safety diabetes communicable disease control communicable diseases, emerging surveys and questionnaires
spain thrombosis clinical trials as topic virus replication prognosis

To open the map directly in VOSviewer, please use these the latest MAP and NET files, available through the Open Science Foundation (OSF) repository:
https://osf.io/54gqw/ 

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to August 10th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed August 10th 38271 publications. There were 2395 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts. These divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method. The minimum cluster size was set to 30.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
pneumonia telemedicine pandemic sars male
epidemiology personal protective equipment coronavirus infection animals female
hydroxychloroquine mental health viral pneumonia antiviral agents adult
infectious diseases outbreak betacoronavirus viruses middle aged
mortality anxiety china zoonosis aged
infection depression disease outbreaks mers clinical laboratory techniques
inflammation social distancing public health peptidyl-dipeptidase a children
ace2 prevention infection control spike glycoprotein, coronavirus young adult
chloroquine healthcare workers quarantine genome, viral adolescent
acute respiratory distress syndrome triage epidemic respiratory infections tomography, x-ray computed
cytokines masks united states vaccine risk factor
treatment cancer travel antibodies, viral retrospective studies
cardiovascular diseases surgery global health viral vaccines lung
hypertension safety italy diagnosis aged, 80 and over
critical illness spain health personnel clinical trials as topic infant
cytokine storm stress intensive care units transmission fever
diabetes mellitus lockdown critical care phylogeny child, preschool
ards education practice guidelines as topic chiroptera comorbidity
lopinavir guidelines health policy wuhan pregnancy
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors knowledge time factors receptors, virus cough
remdesivir ethics risk assessment immunization, passive hospitalization
obesity patient care contact tracing antibodies, monoclonal severity of illness index
tocilizumab psychiatry world health organization drug repositioning real time polymerase chain reaction
ritonavir disinfection united kingdom alanine surveys and questionnaires
diabetes aerosols infectious disease transmission, patient-to-professional antibody prognosis

To open the map directly in VOSviewer, please use these the latest MAP and NET files, available through the Open Science Foundation (OSF) repository:
https://osf.io/54gqw/ 

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to August 3rd, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed August 3rd 36201 publications. There were 2262 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts. These divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method. The minimum cluster size was set to 25.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
pneumonia telemedicine pandemic sars male
epidemiology personal protective equipment coronavirus infection animals female
hydroxychloroquine mental health viral pneumonia antiviral agents adult
infectious diseases anxiety betacoronavirus viruses middle aged
mortality depression china zoonosis aged
infection social distancing disease outbreaks outbreak clinical laboratory techniques
inflammation prevention public health peptidyl-dipeptidase a young adult
ace2 triage infection control mers children
chloroquine masks quarantine spike glycoprotein, coronavirus adolescent
acute respiratory distress syndrome healthcare workers epidemic genome, viral tomography, x-ray computed
cytokines cancer united states antibodies, viral risk factor
vaccine safety travel respiratory infections retrospective studies
treatment surgery global health viral vaccines lung
cardiovascular diseases stress italy clinical trials as topic aged, 80 and over
hypertension lockdown health personnel phylogeny infant
critical illness knowledge intensive care units transmission fever
diagnosis guidelines practice guidelines as topic chiroptera child, preschool
cytokine storm education critical care wuhan comorbidity
diabetes mellitus ethics time factors receptors, virus cough
ards patient care health policy immunization, passive pregnancy
lopinavir disinfection risk assessment antibodies, monoclonal hospitalization
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors psychiatry world health organization drug repositioning severity of illness index
remdesivir aerosols contact tracing alanine real time polymerase chain reaction
obesity palliative care united kingdom adenosine monophosphate surveys and questionnaires
tocilizumab fear infectious disease transmission, patient-to-professional antibody treatment outcome

To open the map directly in VOSviewer, please use these the latest MAP and NET files, available through the Open Science Foundation (OSF) repository:
https://osf.io/54gqw/ 

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to July 27th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed July 27th: 33970 publications. There were 2111 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts. These divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
pneumonia epidemiology pandemic sars male
hydroxychloroquine telemedicine coronavirus infection animals female
mortality personal protective equipment viral pneumonia antiviral agents adult
infection outbreak betacoronavirus zoonosis middle aged
ace2 mental health china viruses aged
inflammation infectious diseases disease outbreaks peptidyl-dipeptidase a clinical laboratory techniques
chloroquine anxiety public health mers children
acute respiratory distress syndrome depression infection control spike glycoprotein, coronavirus young adult
cytokines social distancing quarantine genome, viral adolescent
treatment prevention epidemic antibodies, viral tomography, x-ray computed
cardiovascular diseases transmission united states viral vaccines risk factor
critical illness masks travel vaccine retrospective studies
diagnosis triage global health respiratory infections lung
hypertension healthcare workers italy clinical trials as topic aged, 80 and over
cytokine storm cancer health personnel phylogeny infant
diabetes mellitus safety intensive care units chiroptera fever
ards surgery practice guidelines as topic wuhan child, preschool
lopinavir stress critical care receptors, virus comorbidity
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors virology time factors immunization, passive cough
remdesivir guidelines health policy antibodies, monoclonal pregnancy
obesity disease risk assessment drug repositioning hospitalization
ritonavir knowledge world health organization alanine severity of illness index
tocilizumab lockdown contact tracing adenosine monophosphate real time polymerase chain reaction
computed tomography education united kingdom communicable diseases, emerging surveys and questionnaires
novel coronavirus pneumonia patient care infectious disease transmission, patient-to-professional models, molecular prognosis

To open the map directly in VOSviewer, please use these the latest MAP and NET files, available through the Open Science Foundation (OSF) repository:
https://osf.io/54gqw/ 

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph of the current focus of the COVID-19 literature

In this week’s update, we are presenting something slightly different; the current focus of the COVID-19 literature, based on publications registered in PubMed as published in the past 3 weeks (21 days). This resulted in 6001 publications. There were 677 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts. These divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method. The minimum cluster size was set to 15.

  • Cluster 1 (red) covers literature focusing on Public health strategies, treatment, and the global impact of COVID-19.
  • Cluster 2 (green) includes literature on the role of existing drugs and vaccines in the current pandemic.
  • Cluster 3 (blue) focuses on demographics and risk factors.
  • Cluster 4 (yellow) covers literature concentrated on understanding the nature of the virus.
  • Cluster 5 (Purple) addresses the association between COVID-19 and mental health.

We find it interesting that there does not seem to be a big shift in publication focus from earlier in the pandemic; however, expect this to change as more time has elapsed, allowing for other types of studies to mature and be ready for publication, especially on topics relating to social consequences of the pandemic.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
pandemic sars female clinical laboratory techniques surveys and questionnaires
coronavirus infection antiviral agents male rna, viral anxiety
viral pneumonia animals middle aged real time polymerase chain reaction prevalence
betacoronavirus antibodies, viral adult viruses mental health
italy hydroxychloroquine aged pneumonia cross-sectional studies
united states cytokines china sensitivity and specificity depression
telemedicine inflammation risk factor reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction stress, psychological
quarantine peptidyl-dipeptidase a young adult epidemiology cancer
public health viral vaccines retrospective studies zoonosis health knowledge, attitudes, practice
personal protective equipment spike glycoprotein, coronavirus aged, 80 and over nasopharynx fear
disease outbreaks cytokine release syndrome adolescent infection social media
infection control thrombosis children immunoglobulin g family
pregnancy cardiovascular diseases treatment outcome respiratory infections olfaction disorders
health personnel vaccine severity of illness index outbreak students
spain renin-angiotensin system lung transmission adaptation, psychological
cities influenza, human hospitalization serological test communication
incidence mice time factors patient selection stress
air pollution angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors prognosis viral load emotions
practice guidelines as topic chloroquine tomography, x-ray computed immunoglobulin m smell
global health immunologic factors risk assessment diagnosis, differential ageusia

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Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to July 13th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed July 13th: 30116 publications. There were 1835 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts. These divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method. The minimum cluster size was set to 25.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
pneumonia telemedicine coronavirus infection sars female
epidemiology personal protective equipment viral pneumonia animals male
hydroxychloroquine mental health pandemic antiviral agents adult
infectious diseases anxiety betacoronavirus zoonosis middle aged
infection surveys and questionnaires china outbreak aged
mortality depression disease outbreaks viruses clinical laboratory techniques
ace2 social distancing public health mers children
chloroquine prevention infection control peptidyl-dipeptidase a young adult
inflammation cross-sectional studies quarantine spike glycoprotein, coronavirus tomography, x-ray computed
cytokines stress, psychological epidemic genome, viral adolescent
acute respiratory distress syndrome healthcare workers travel viral vaccines risk factor
treatment triage global health antibodies, viral retrospective studies
cardiovascular diseases masks united states respiratory infections lung
critical illness surgery italy vaccine aged, 80 and over
diagnosis safety health personnel clinical trials as topic fever
hypertension guidelines intensive care units phylogeny infant
cytokine storm knowledge critical care chiroptera child, preschool
diabetes mellitus cancer time factors transmission cough
ards stress practice guidelines as topic wuhan real time polymerase chain reaction
lopinavir ethics world health organization receptors, virus comorbidity
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors mental health services health policy immunization, passive pregnancy
remdesivir lockdown contact tracing medicine, chinese traditional hospitalization
ritonavir education united kingdom antibodies, monoclonal severity of illness index
tocilizumab disinfection infectious disease transmission, patient-to-professional alanine prognosis
novel coronavirus pneumonia patient care risk assessment adenosine monophosphate age factors

Cluster description in progress

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Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to July 6th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed July 6th: 28256 publications. There were 1732 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts. These divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
pneumonia coronavirus infection sars female mental health
epidemiology viral pneumonia animals male anxiety
outbreak pandemic antiviral agents adult depression
telemedicine betacoronavirus zoonosis middle aged fear
viruses china peptidyl-dipeptidase a aged stress
infection disease outbreaks hydroxychloroquine clinical laboratory techniques social support
infectious diseases public health spike glycoprotein, coronavirus young adult emotions
mortality infection control genome, viral children psychological distress
inflammation quarantine chloroquine tomography, x-ray computed medical staff
cardiovascular diseases epidemic viral vaccines adolescent anxiety disorders
treatment travel antibodies, viral retrospective studies health status
respiratory infections global health ace2 lung quality of life
transmission italy phylogeny risk factor sleep
prevention united states clinical trials as topic fever asian continental ancestry group
hypertension personal protective equipment chiroptera aged, 80 and over follow-up studies
diagnosis health personnel middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus infant resilience, psychological
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors time factors mers child, preschool workforce
ards practice guidelines as topic cytokines cough dementia
diabetes mellitus critical care wuhan comorbidity suicide
novel coronavirus pneumonia contact tracing receptors, virus pregnancy ptsd

Cluster description in progress

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Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to June 29th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed June 29th: 26187 publications. There were 1789 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts. These divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
pneumonia coronavirus infection sars female mental health
epidemiology viral pneumonia animals male anxiety
outbreak pandemic antiviral agents adult depression
telemedicine betacoronavirus zoonosis middle aged fear
viruses china peptidyl-dipeptidase a aged stress
infection disease outbreaks hydroxychloroquine clinical laboratory techniques social support
infectious diseases public health spike glycoprotein, coronavirus young adult emotions
mortality infection control genome, viral children psychological distress
inflammation quarantine chloroquine tomography, x-ray computed medical staff
cardiovascular diseases epidemic viral vaccines adolescent anxiety disorders
treatment travel antibodies, viral retrospective studies health status
respiratory infections global health ace2 lung quality of life
transmission italy phylogeny risk factor sleep
prevention united states clinical trials as topic fever asian continental ancestry group
hypertension personal protective equipment chiroptera aged, 80 and over follow-up studies
diagnosis health personnel middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus infant resilience, psychological
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors time factors mers child, preschool workforce
ards practice guidelines as topic cytokines cough dementia
diabetes mellitus critical care wuhan comorbidity suicide
novel coronavirus pneumonia contact tracing receptors, virus pregnancy ptsd

Cluster description in progress

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Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to June 22nd, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed June 22nd: 24167 publications. There were 1656 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts. These divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
pneumonia coronavirus infection sars female mental health
epidemiology viral pneumonia animals male anxiety
outbreak pandemic antiviral agents adult depression
telemedicine betacoronavirus zoonosis middle aged fear
viruses china peptidyl-dipeptidase a aged stress
infection disease outbreaks hydroxychloroquine clinical laboratory techniques social support
infectious diseases public health spike glycoprotein, coronavirus young adult emotions
mortality infection control genome, viral children psychological distress
inflammation quarantine chloroquine tomography, x-ray computed medical staff
cardiovascular diseases epidemic viral vaccines adolescent anxiety disorders
treatment travel antibodies, viral retrospective studies health status
respiratory infections global health ace2 lung quality of life
transmission italy phylogeny risk factor sleep
prevention united states clinical trials as topic fever asian continental ancestry group
hypertension personal protective equipment chiroptera aged, 80 and over follow-up studies
diagnosis health personnel middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus infant resilience, psychological
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors time factors mers child, preschool workforce
ards practice guidelines as topic cytokines cough dementia
diabetes mellitus critical care wuhan comorbidity suicide
novel coronavirus pneumonia contact tracing receptors, virus pregnancy ptsd

Cluster description in progress

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Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to June 15th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed June 15th: 22147 publications. There were 1535 keywords that occurred in five or more manuscripts. These divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
pneumonia coronavirus infection sars female mental health
epidemiology viral pneumonia animals male anxiety
outbreak pandemic antiviral agents adult depression
telemedicine betacoronavirus zoonosis middle aged fear
viruses china peptidyl-dipeptidase a aged stress
infection disease outbreaks hydroxychloroquine clinical laboratory techniques social support
infectious diseases public health spike glycoprotein, coronavirus young adult emotions
mortality infection control genome, viral children psychological distress
inflammation quarantine chloroquine tomography, x-ray computed medical staff
cardiovascular diseases epidemic viral vaccines adolescent anxiety disorders
treatment travel antibodies, viral retrospective studies health status
respiratory infections global health ace2 lung quality of life
transmission italy phylogeny risk factor sleep
prevention united states clinical trials as topic fever asian continental ancestry group
hypertension personal protective equipment chiroptera aged, 80 and over follow-up studies
diagnosis health personnel middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus infant resilience, psychological
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors time factors mers child, preschool workforce
ards practice guidelines as topic cytokines cough dementia
diabetes mellitus critical care wuhan comorbidity suicide
novel coronavirus pneumonia contact tracing receptors, virus pregnancy ptsd

Cluster description in progress

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KeywordCoOccurrance5Inst1Resol1_20200615NETb
KeywordCoOccurrance5Inst1Resol1_20200615MAPb

The maps are created with the following “thesaurus” to clean the data:
Thesaurus20200601

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to June 8th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed June 8th: 19426 publications. There were 1814 keywords that occurred in four or more manuscripts. These divided into five main clusters. To create the map, we used the LinLog method.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
pneumonia coronavirus infection sars female mental health
epidemiology viral pneumonia animals male surveys and questionnaires
outbreak pandemic antiviral agents adult anxiety
zoonosis betacoronavirus peptidyl-dipeptidase a middle aged depression
viruses china hydroxychloroquine aged cross-sectional studies
telemedicine disease outbreaks spike glycoprotein, coronavirus clinical laboratory techniques knowledge
infection public health genome, viral children fear
infectious diseases infection control chloroquine young adult stress
mortality quarantine viral vaccines tomography, x-ray computed social support
treatment travel antibodies, viral adolescent emotions
wuhan epidemic phylogeny lung medical staff
respiratory infections global health ace2 retrospective studies psychological distress
transmission italy clinical trials as topic risk factor nursing homes
prevention united states chiroptera fever anxiety disorders
diagnosis personal protective equipment inflammation aged, 80 and over health status
novel coronavirus pneumonia health personnel cardiovascular diseases infant quality of life
safety time factors middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus cough asian continental ancestry group
telehealth practice guidelines as topic mers child, preschool sleep
influenza critical care cytokines comorbidity pharmacists
virology contact tracing receptors, virus pregnancy resilience, psychological

Cluster description in progress

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KeywordCoOccurrance4Inst1Resol1_20200608NET
KeywordCoOccurrance4Inst1Resol1_20200608MAP

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Thesaurus20200601

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to June 1st, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed 1st June: 17346 publications. There were 1648 keywords that occurred in four or more manuscripts. These divided into five main clusters.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality/total link strength)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
pneumonia coronavirus infection sars female mental health
epidemiology viral pneumonia animals male anxiety
outbreak pandemic antiviral agents adult depression
zoonosis betacoronavirus peptidyl-dipeptidase a middle aged fear
viruses china spike glycoprotein, coronavirus clinical laboratory techniques social support
telemedicine disease outbreaks hydroxychloroquine aged stress
infection public health genome, viral young adult emotions
infectious diseases infection control chloroquine children medical staff
mortality travel viral vaccines tomography, x-ray computed psychological distress
treatment quarantine antibodies, viral adolescent anxiety disorders
wuhan epidemic phylogeny lung health status
respiratory infections global health clinical trials as topic retrospective studies lockdown
transmission italy chiroptera risk factor sleep
prevention united states ace2 fever quality of life
diagnosis personal protective equipment cardiovascular diseases infant resilience, psychological
novel coronavirus pneumonia health personnel middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus aged, 80 and over follow-up studies
ards time factors inflammation cough workforce
safety practice guidelines as topic mers child, preschool self care
acute respiratory distress syndrome critical care receptors, virus comorbidity suicide
influenza contact tracing cytokines pregnancy ptsd

Cluster description in progress

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CoOccurrance4Inst1Resol1_20200601MAP
CoOccurrance4Inst1Resol1_20200601NET

The maps are created with the following “thesaurus” to clean the data:
Thesaurus20200601

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to May 25th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed 25th May: 15438 publications. There were 1515 keywords that occurred in four or more manuscripts. These divided into five main clusters.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
pneumonia coronavirus infection sars female anxiety
epidemiology viral pneumonia animals male depression
outbreak pandemic antiviral agents adult fear
zoonosis betacoronavirus peptidyl-dipeptidase a middle aged social support
viruses china spike glycoprotein, coronavirus clinical laboratory techniques medical staff
infection disease outbreaks hydroxychloroquine aged psychological distress
infectious diseases public health genome, viral young adult anxiety disorders
mortality infection control chloroquine tomography, x-ray computed stress
wuhan travel viral vaccines children sleep
treatment quarantine antibodies, viral adolescent quality of life
respiratory infections epidemic phylogeny lung resilience, psychological
transmission global health clinical trials as topic retrospective studies workforce
diagnosis italy chiroptera risk factor self care
prevention united states ace2 fever suicide
novel coronavirus pneumonia personal protective equipment cardiovascular diseases infant public health emergencies
ards health personnel middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus aged, 80 and over perception
influenza practice guidelines as topic inflammation cough ptsd
virology time factors receptors, virus child, preschool crisis management
acute respiratory distress syndrome telemedicine mers comorbidity mindfulness
guidelines mental health lopinavir pregnancy adolescents

Cluster description in progress

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KeywordCoOccurrance4Inst1Resol20200525MAP
KeywordCoOccurrance4Inst1Resol20200525NET

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KeywordCoOccurrance_20200427_Thesaurus

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to May 18th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed 18th May: 13103 publications. There were 1861 keywords that occurred in three or more manuscripts. These divided into four main clusters.

This week’s rapport strengthens our observation from last couple of weeks that the clusters and topics seem to vary less, signifying that cluster may be more robust. This is true even if cluster 1 and 2 have changed places. Maybe this switch could imply that research and publication is switching more to how to managing the disease, than mainly be focused on the understanding of the phenomenon. In cluster 3 the term(s) (hydroxyl)chloroquine is  rising on the list. Last week there was a fifth cluster that we called “clinical issues”, but the terms included in this cluster have returned to the third cluster where they originated.

 

Cluster 1 could be called “disease epidemiology” and includes terms like pneumonia, epidemiology, outbreak, infection, infectious diseases, novel coronavirus pneumonia, treatment and transmission. This cluster contains 2 major topics: a) the main term “the disease” which in addition to the above mentioned terms, but also b) “inpatient care” which contains terms like ARDS, critical illness and airway management. In this cluster some smaller topics are also present.

Cluster 2 could be called «global virus pandemic» and includes terms (beta)coronavirus infection, viral pneumonia, pandemic/epidemic, public health, infection control and quarantine. This cluster contains 3 main topics a) “preventive epidemiology”, which in addition to the terms public health and quarantine contains terms like disease outbreak, travel and contact tracing, b) “care management” which includes terms like infection control, practice guidelines and health personnel and c) “vulnerability” that contains terms like mental health, psychological stress and health service accessibility.

 

Cluster 3 could be called “pathophysiology and origin” and includes terms like SARS, animals, zoonosis, antiviral agents, viral genome, phylogeny and chiroptera. This cluster contains to major topics: a) “viral biology” which in addition to terms like SARS, animals, viral genome and phylogeny includes terms like spike glycoprotein and peptidyl-dipeptidase a and b) “drug treatment” which in addition to the term antiviral agent, (hydroxyl)chloroquine and chiroptera contains terms like traditional Chinese medicine and lopinavir.

Cluster 4 could be named “clinical epidemiology” and contains terms like mortality, age, gender, clinical laboratory techniques and fever. Also in this cluster, there is only this major topic. Smaller topics include “population care”, “serology” and “pregnancy”.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4
pneumonia coronavirus infection sars female
epidemiology viral pneumonia animals male
outbreak pandemic antiviral agents adult
viruses betacoronavirus peptidyl-dipeptidase a middle aged
infection china zoonosis clinical laboratory techniques
infectious diseases disease outbreaks spike glycoprotein, coronavirus aged
mortality public health genome, viral young adult
treatment infection control hydroxychloroquine tomography, x-ray computed
critical illness travel viral vaccines children
respiratory infections quarantine chloroquine adolescent
transmission epidemic phylogeny lung
diagnosis global health antibodies, viral risk factor
prevention united states chiroptera retrospective studies
novel coronavirus pneumonia italy clinical trials as topic fever
ards health personnel middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus aged, 80 and over
virology personal protective equipment ace2 infant
influenza practice guidelines as topic receptors, virus cough
guidelines time factors wuhan child, preschool
japan telemedicine cardiovascular diseases comorbidity
therapy mental health inflammation real-time polymerase chain reaction
acute respiratory distress syndrome contact tracing mers severity of illness index
telehealth world health organization angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors pregnancy
immunosuppression united kingdom immunization, passive surveys and questionnaires
lymphopenia infectious disease transmission, patient-to-professional lopinavir hospitalization
respiratory tract infections critical care hypertension prognosis

 

Cluster description in progress

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KeywordCoOccurrance3Inst1Resol20200518MAP
KeywordCoOccurrance3Inst1Resol20200518NET

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KeywordCoOccurrance_20200427_Thesaurus

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to May 11th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed 11th May: 11005 publications. There were 1634 keywords that occurred in three or more manuscripts. These divided into four main clusters.

 

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5 Cluster 6
china infection sars coronavirus infection female mental health
disease outbreaks cardiovascular diseases animals viral pneumonia male surveys and questionnaires
public health treatment antiviral agents betacoronavirus adult anxiety
travel angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors peptidyl-dipeptidase a pandemic middle aged health knowledge, attitudes, practice
epidemic hypertension spike glycoprotein, coronavirus infection control clinical laboratory techniques stress, psychological
quarantine diabetes mellitus genome, viral italy aged cross-sectional studies
global health diagnosis viral vaccines practice guidelines as topic tomography, x-ray computed depression
epidemiology ards phylogeny health personnel young adult mental health services
outbreak angiotensin receptor antagonists chiroptera personal protective equipment children psychiatry
united states renin-angiotensin system rna, viral infectious disease transmission, patient-to-professional adolescent knowledge
zoonosis influenza antibodies, viral united kingdom lung mental disorders
time factors therapy hydroxychloroquine critical care risk factor fear
viruses acute respiratory distress syndrome chloroquine delivery of health care retrospective studies social support
world health organization guidelines clinical trials as topic intensive care units pneumonia universities
contact tracing immunosuppression middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus respiration, artificial fever emotions
telemedicine safety receptors, virus influenza, human aged, 80 and over social isolation
infectious diseases diabetes complications ace2 health resources cough medical staff
risk assessment airway management mers critical illness infant anxiety disorders
civil defense heart failure immunization, passive decision making child, preschool health status
mortality covid inflammation cross infection comorbidity students, medical
population surveillance respiratory failure cytokines brazil real-time polymerase chain reaction psychological distress
health policy surgery lopinavir neoplasms severity of illness index corona
patient isolation corona virus antibodies, monoclonal india pregnancy schools
communicable disease control myocardium ritonavir masks radiography, thoracic students
wuhan tracheostomy alanine state medicine prognosis asian continental ancestry group

 

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KeywordCoOccurrance_20200511_NET
KeywordCoOccurrance_20200511_MAP

The maps are created with the following “thesaurus” to clean the data:
KeywordCoOccurrance_20200427_Thesaurus

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to May 4th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed 4th May: 8791 publications. There were 1381 keywords that occurred in three or more manuscripts. These divided into five main clusters.

Cluster descriptions

In progress..

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
coronavirus infection epidemiology sars female mental health
viral pneumonia outbreak animals male surveys and questionnaires
betacoronavirus viruses antiviral agents adult health knowledge, attitudes, practice
pandemic infectious diseases peptidyl-dipeptidase a middle aged cross-sectional studies
china infection zoonosis clinical laboratory techniques anxiety
disease outbreaks respiration, artificial spike glycoprotein, coronavirus aged stress, psychological
public health critical illness genome, viral young adult depression
infection control treatment viral vaccines tomography, x-ray computed knowledge
travel respiratory infections phylogeny children fear
epidemic diagnosis chiroptera adolescent emotions
global health transmission clinical trials as topic risk factor social support
quarantine prevention chloroquine lung dentists
united states respiratory insufficiency hydroxychloroquine fever medical staff
italy influenza middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus pneumonia anxiety disorders
time factors taiwan antibodies, viral retrospective studies social isolation
health personnel guidelines wuhan cough health status
world health organization respiratory tract infections receptors, virus aged, 80 and over asian continental ancestry group
practice guidelines as topic immunosuppression influenza, human infant resilience, psychological
contact tracing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation ace2 child, preschool emerging infectious disease
telemedicine preparedness cardiovascular diseases severity of illness index sleep
personal protective equipment hong kong mers comorbidity sleep initiation and maintenance disorders
civil defense seasons immunization, passive real-time polymerase chain reaction stress
infectious disease transmission, patient-to-professional airway management inflammation radiography, thoracic family
risk assessment respiratory therapy lopinavir pregnancy practice
critical care screening angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors mortality quality of life

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KeywordCoOccurrance_20200505_MAP

KeywordCoOccurrance_20200505_NET

The maps are created with the following “thesaurus” to clean the data:
KeywordCoOccurrance_20200427_Thesaurus

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to April 27th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed 27th April: 6958 publications. There were 1082 keywords that occurred in three or more manuscripts. These divided into four main clusters.

Cluster descriptions

This week’s rapport confirms what we suspected last week, that the clusters and topics seem to vary less. Clusters 1, 3 and 4 were quite stable, while cluster 2 saw a bit of change, mostly in the addition of a new topic (“inpatient care”). New from this week is that we in cluster 4 mention 3 upcoming topics with increasing number of publications. Finally, the last cluster (cluster 5) seemed to take a bit different course, mostly because most of the terms here moved to be included in cluster 1 in a new topic. Cluster 5 now is more about the disease.

Cluster 1 could be called «global virus pandemic» and includes terms like (beta)coronavirus infection, viral pneumonia, disease outbreak and public health. This cluster contains 3 major topics: a) “preventive epidemiology”, which in addition to the terms like disease outbreak and public health includes terms like travel, epidemic, global heath and civil defence, b) “care management” which includes terms like infection control, practice guidelines and health personnel and c) “vulnerability” that contains terms like mental health, psychological stress and health service accessibility.

Cluster 2 could be called “disease epidemiology” and includes terms like pneumonia, epidemiology, outbreak, infection, infectious diseases, novel coronavirus pneumonia, treatment and transmission. This cluster contains 2 major topics: a) the main term “the disease” which in addition to the above mentioned terms, but also b) “inpatient care” which contains terms like ARDS, critical illness and airway management. In this cluster some smaller topics are also present.

Cluster 3 could be called “pathophysiology and origin” and includes terms like SARS, animals, zoonosis, antiviral agents, viral genome, phylogeny and chiroptera. This cluster contains to major topics: a) “viral biology” which in addition to terms like SARS, animals, viral genome and phylogeny includes terms like spike glycoprotein and peptidyl-dipeptidase a and b) “drug treatment” which in addition to the term antiviral agent and chiroptera contains terms like traditional Chinese medicine, chloroquine and lopinavir.

Cluster 4 could be named “clinical epidemiology” and contains terms like mortality, age, gender, clinical laboratory techniques and fever. Also in this cluster, there is only this major topic. Smaller topics include “population care”, “serology” and “pregnancy”.

Cluster 5 could be named “clinical issues” and contains terms like cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and diabetes mellitus. This is the smallest cluster with only one topic.

Table of the most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5
coronavirus infection pneumonia sars male cardiovascular diseases
viral pneumonia epidemiology animals female hypertension
betacoronavirus outbreak antiviral agents adult angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
pandemic viruses zoonosis middle aged diabetes mellitus
china infection peptidyl-dipeptidase a clinical laboratory techniques angiotensin receptor antagonists
disease outbreaks infectious diseases spike glycoprotein, coronavirus aged renin-angiotensin system
public health respiratory infections genome, viral young adult diabetes complications
travel critical illness phylogeny tomography, x-ray computed heart failure
infection control treatment chiroptera children myocardium
epidemic novel coronavirus pneumonia viral vaccines adolescent antihypertensive agents
global health diagnosis middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus fever diabetes mellitus, type 2
quarantine transmission antibodies, viral risk factor heart diseases
united states prevention wuhan lung angiotensin ii
italy ards receptors, virus retrospective studies myocarditis
practice guidelines as topic influenza clinical trials as topic cough cardiovascular system

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KeywordCoOccurrance_20200427_MAP
KeywordCoOccurrance_20200427_NET

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KeywordCoOccurrance_20200427_Thesaurus

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to April 20th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed 20th April: 5228 publications. There were 853 keywords that occurred in three or more manuscripts. These divided into four main clusters.

Cluster descriptions

Cluster 1 could be called «A global virus pandemic» and includes terms like (beta)coronavirus infection, viral pneumonia, disease outbreak and public health. This cluster contains 2 major topics: a) “preventive epidemiology”, which in addition to the terms like disease outbreak and public health includes terms like travel, global heath and civil defence and b) “care management” which includes terms like infection control, practice guidelines and health personnel

Cluster 2 could be called “disease epidemiology” and includes terms like epidemiology, outbreak, infection, infectious diseases, novel coronavirus pneumonia, treatment and transmission. This is a small cluster with only this major topic

Cluster 3 could be called “pathophysiology and origin” and includes terms like SARS, animals, zoonosis, antiviral agents, viral genome, phylogeny and chiroptera. This cluster contains to major topics: a) “viral biology” which in addition to terms like SARS, animals, viral genome, phylogeny and chiroptera includes terms like spike glycoprotein and peptidyl-dipeptidase a and b) “drug treatment” which in addition to the term antiviral agent contains terms like traditional Chinese medicine, chloroquine and lopinavir

Cluster 4 could be named “clinical epidemiology” and contains terms like mortality, age, gender, clinical laboratory techniques and fever. Also in this cluster, there is only this major topic.

Cluster 5 could be named “related topics” and contains terms like mental health and anxiety and depression one side , but also terms like surveys and questionnaires, cross-sectional studies and health knowledge; attitudes and practice on the other. This is the smallest cluster with only one topic

Table of ten most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality)

Cluster 1 (Red) Cluster 2 (Green) Cluster 3 (Blue) Cluster 4 (Yellow) Cluster 5 (Purple)
coronavirus infection pneumonia sars female mental health
viral pneumonia epidemiology animals male health knowledge, attitudes, practice
betacoronavirus outbreak zoonosis adult anxiety
pandemic infection antiviral agents middle aged depression
china infectious diseases genome, viral aged fear
disease outbreaks novel coronavirus pneumonia phylogeny clinical laboratory techniques social support
public health treatment chiroptera young adult anxiety disorders
travel transmission spike glycoprotein, coronavirus children emotions
epidemic prevention peptidyl-dipeptidase a adolescent health status
global health inflammation viral vaccines tomography, x-ray computed resilience, psychological

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CoOccurrance3Inst1Resol20thApril20NET

CoOccurrance3Inst1Resol20thApril20MAP

The maps are created with the following “thesaurus” to clean the data: Thesaurus13thApril

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to April 13th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed 13th April: 3683 publications. There were 607 keywords that occurred in three or more manuscripts. These divided into four main clusters.

Cluster descriptions

Cluster descriptions

Cluster 1 (red) relates to “Health and pandemic management”, and include topics like the epidemic, the impact on global health, the public health, infection control and health personnel. Within this cluster, we found the topic of “Global health politics”, which in addition to terms on the epidemic, the impact on global health and public health included terms like population surveillance, civil defense and risk assessment. Further, within this cluster, we found the topic of “Pandemic management”, which in addition to the terms infection control and health personnel included terms like practice guidelines and patient isolation.

Cluster 2 (green) related to “The disease and its treatment”, including topics like its pneumonia and diagnosis, but also topics like antiviral drugs and artificial respiration. Within this cluster, we found the topic of “Clinical picture”, which in addition to terms on pneumonia and diagnosis, included terms like corona virus and infectious disease. Further, within this cluster, we find the topic of “Drug treatment”, which in addition to the terms antiviral drugs and artificial respiration, includes terms like lopinavir, alanine, chloroquine and clinical trials.

Cluster 3 (blue) related to the “The virus and its epidemiology”, including terms like SARS, it being a zoonosis, its genome and the outbreak in Wuhan. Two major topics were identified within this cluster: “Clinical epidemiology”, which in addition to it being a zoonosis and broke out in Wuhan, includes terms like transmission and basic reproduction rate. The other major topic identified is on the “Virus biology”, which in addition to the terms SARS and genome, included terms like phylogeny, glycoproteins and antibodies.

Cluster 4 (yellow) related to “Clinical epidemiology”, with terms relating to age, gender, and basic clinical signs and procedures (like x-ray, CT, fever).

Table of ten most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality)

Cluster 1 (Red) Cluster 2 (Green) Cluster 3 (Blue) Cluster 4 (Yellow)
coronavirus infection pneumonia sars male
viral pneumonia epidemiology animals female
betacoronavirus zoonosis genome, viral adult
pandemic outbreak antiviral agents middle aged
china wuhan phylogeny aged
disease outbreaks viruses chiroptera young adult
travel infection spike glycoprotein, coronavirus adolescent
public health novel coronavirus pneumonia peptidyl-dipeptidase a children
infection control infectious diseases viral vaccines tomography, x-ray computed
global health transmission antibodies, viral fever

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CoOccurrance3Inst1Resol13thApril20MAP

CoOccurrance3Inst1Resol13thApril20NET

The maps are created with the following “thesaurus” to clean the data: Thesaurus13thApril

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to April 6th, 2020.

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to April 6th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed 6th April: 2684 publications. There were 453 keywords that occurred in three or more manuscripts. These divided into four main clusters.

Cluster descriptions

Cluster descriptions

Cluster 1 (red) relates to “Health and pandemic management”, and include topics like the epidemic, the impact on global health, the public health, infection control and health personnel. Within this cluster, we found the topic of “Global health politics”, which in addition to terms on the epidemic, the impact on global health and public health included terms like population surveillance, civil defense and risk assessment. Further, within this cluster, we found the topic of “Pandemic management”, which in addition to the terms infection control and health personnel included terms like practice guidelines and patient isolation.

Cluster 2 (green) related to “The disease and its treatment”, including topics like its pneumonia and diagnosis, but also topics like antiviral drugs and artificial respiration. Within this cluster, we found the topic of “Clinical picture”, which in addition to terms on pneumonia and diagnosis, included terms like corona virus and infectious disease. Further, within this cluster, we find the topic of “Drug treatment”, which in addition to the terms antiviral drugs and artificial respiration, includes terms like lopinavir, alanine, chloroquine and clinical trials.

Cluster 3 (blue) related to the “The virus and its epidemiology”, including terms like SARS, it being a zoonosis, its genome and the outbreak in Wuhan. Two major topics were identified within this cluster: “Clinical epidemiology”, which in addition to it being a zoonosis and broke out in Wuhan, includes terms like transmission and basic reproduction rate. The other major topic identified is on the “Virus biology”, which in addition to the terms SARS and genome, included terms like phylogeny, glycoproteins and antibodies.

Cluster 4 (yellow) related to “Clinical epidemiology”, with terms relating to age, gender, and basic clinical signs and procedures (like x-ray, CT, fever).

Table of ten most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality)

Cluster 1 (Red)
Cluster 2 (Green)
Cluster 3 (Blue)
Cluster 4 (Yellow)
coronavirus infection pneumonia sars female
viral pneumonia antiviral agents animals male
betacoronavirus viral vaccines epidemiology adult
china pregnancy genome, viral middle aged
pandemic influenza, human outbreak aged
disease outbreaks respiration, artificial zoonosis young adult
travel lopinavir phylogeny adolescent
public health ritonavir chiroptera tomography, x-ray computed
epidemic alanine wuhan children
infection control chloroquine spike glycoprotein, coronavirus fever

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CoOccurrance3Inst1Resol_6April20MAP

CoOccurrance3Inst1Resol_6April20NET

The maps are created with the following “thesaurus” to clean the data:  Thesaurus6April

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to March 30th, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed 30th March: 1788 publications. There were 308 keywords that occurred in three or more manuscripts. These divided into four clusters.

Cluster descriptions

Cluster 1 (red) relates to “Health and pandemic management”, and include topics like the pandemic, the impact on global health, the disease outbreak, infection control and travel. Within this cluster, we found the topic of “Global health politics”, which in addition to terms on the pandemic and the impact on global health included terms on countries, public health, disease transmission and health planning. Further, within this cluster, we found the topic of “Pandemic politics”, which in addition to the terms disease outbreak and infection control included terms like mass screening and health personnel.

Cluster 2 (green) related to “The disease and its pathophysiology” of COVID-19, including topics like its genome and its relationship with SARS, but also topics like epidemiology and its outbreak and that it is a zoonosis. Within this cluster, we found the topic of “Viral biology”, which in addition to terms on its genome and SARS, included terms like phylogeny and disease reservoirs. Further, within this cluster, we find the topic of “Viral spread”, which in addition to the term epidemiology, includes terms like quarantine, importation and incubation period. Lastly, this cluster contained the topic “Basic clinical medicine”, which in addition to the terms outbreak and zoonosis, included terms like transmission and mortality.

Cluster 3 (blue) related to the “Clinical epidemiology of the disease”, including topics like age (aged, children, adolescent) and gender (male and female), risk factor, population surveillance and pregnancy. Only one major topic was identified within this cluster: “Clinical characteristics”. In addition to the terms on age and gender, this topic included terms like prognosis, myalgia, biomarkers and laboratory medicine.

Cluster 4 (yellow) related to “Treatment of the disease”, with terms like antiviral agents, diagnosis, ritonavir and drug combinations.

Table of ten most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality)

Cluster 1 (Red)
Cluster 2 (Green)
Cluster 3 (lBlue)
Cluster 4 (Yellow)
disease outbreaks sars female pneumonia
travel animals male antiviral agents
pandemic epidemiology adult lopinavir
public health genome, viral middle aged respiration, artificial
epidemic phylogeny aged ritonavir
global health outbreak young adult diagnosis, differential
infection control zoonosis children influenza, human
population surveillance wuhan tomography, x-ray computed novel coronavirus pneumonia
united states chiroptera fever alanine
risk assessment communicable diseases, emerging adolescent diagnosis

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CoOccurrance3Inst1Resol30March20MAP

CoOccurrance3Inst1Resol30March20NET

The maps are created with the following “thesaurus” to clean the data:  Thesaurus 23 March

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to March 23rd, 2020.

Corpus downloaded from PubMed 23rd March: 1323 publications. There were 225 keywords that occurred in three or more manuscripts. These divided into four clusters.

 

Table of ten most central keywords in each cluster

(Centrality measure used is weighted degree centrality)

Health and pandemic management
(Red)

The disease and its pathophysiology
(Yellow)

Clinical epidemiology of the disease
(Blue)

Treatment of the disease
(Green)

coronavirus infection pneumonia female sars
viral pneumonia outbreak adult animals
betacoronavirus epidemiology male genome, viral
china antiviral agents middle aged phylogeny
disease outbreaks viruses aged zoonosis
travel republic of korea young adult wuhan
pandemic lopinavir fever chiroptera
global health transmission tomography, x-ray computed communicable diseases, emerging
infection control ritonavir children disease reservoirs
public health mortality lung peptidyl-dipeptidase a

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CoOccurrance3Inst1Resol23March20MAP

CoOccurrance3Inst1Resol23March20NET

The maps are created with the following “thesaurus” to clean the data:  Thesaurus 23 March

Keyword Co-Occurrence Network Graph for the Overall Research Field on COVID-19 up to March 16th, 2020.


Corpus downloaded from PubMed 16th March: 992 publications)

The table below provides an overview of the most central keywords from each of the clusters in the keyword co-occurrence network graph above.

Table of most central keywords in each cluster from the network graph:

Cluster Red
Cluster GREEN
Cluster BLUE
Cluster YELLOW
Cluster PURPLE
Cluster TEAL

Clinical analysis and treatment

Categorization of epidemic

Epidemiology and Global spread

Prognosis for population groups

Origin and definition

Social prevention measures

pneumonia sars epidemiology adult china coronavirus infection
infection mers australia female outbreak betacoronavirus
novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic case definition middle aged viruses disease outbreaks
public health pregnancy emerging infectious diseases male wuhan united states
diagnosis infant acute respiratory disease viral pneumonia zoonosis centers for disease control and prevention, u.s.
treatment bat importation aged respiratory infections contact tracing
infectious diseases pandemic travel children transmission travel-related illness
clinical characteristics ace2 isolation radiography, thoracic respiratory disease risk assessment
influenza wuhan pneumonia quarantine young adult cluster practice guidelines as topic
clinical features exposure migration prognosis mathematical model infection control